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達賴喇嘛對同志的演講

文章發表於 : 2014年 4月 19日 , 17:31
靜慮
達賴喇嘛對同志的演講

中文翻譯:梵志園站長

達賴喇嘛於一九九七年七月十一日在美國舊金山與全美同性戀佛教徒領袖們的一項座談會內容。達賴喇嘛首先表示,他個人對此議題願從兩個層面來回應,一是從社會關懷的觀點;其次是從佛教本身的觀點。

他強調,從社會關懷的觀點而言,一個社會若拒絕一群人只為他們的性傾向,這是錯誤的,因為這將為這些受歧視的人帶來莫大的傷害,因此,他肯定同性戀的平權運動是合理的且合乎羅輯的。

其次,他從佛教戒律本身來說明這個問題,他指出,經典中對於何種性行為違反五戒中的不邪淫有若干的說明,但根據此種規定,凡是陰道性交以外的性行為,都是不正確的性行為,應該被佛教徒所避免的。因此,同性間的性行為從佛教的觀點來說,是不能被列為正確的性行為。但他也進一步說明佛教所認為的不正確行為,可分為兩個層次,一是本性上的惡,如殺人;另一個則是非本性上的惡,如邪淫及出家人違反過午不食戒律等,所以一般而言,後者所引發的惡業是比前者來得輕。

達賴喇嘛進一步強調,「同性戀者仍可成為佛教徒,甚至為了避免因為性壓抑而導致更大的負面結果,如暴力事件等,他認為,同性戀佛教徒最好還是保有他們的性行為。」

當被問到為何戒律中允許異性戀信眾一天可以從事多達五次的性行為,卻認定同性戀者哪怕一生只從事過一次性行為都是錯誤的呢?達賴喇嘛坦承,這項戒律的制定可能與當時印度獎勵生產的風俗有關,他也認為,隨著時代的演進,或許過去認為是不對的事,如今已普遍被認可,例如同性戀的議題就相當值得大家來集思廣議,但戒律中的規定與說明不是他個人或其他個人所能更改的,依照傳統,這必需經由全體僧團大會討論決定,因此,他個人會建議將這項議題提到即將舉行的各教派佛教大會中討論。



The Dalai Lama meets with lesbian and gay leaders

Press Release June 1997

Contact:

Mirka Negroni, IGLHRC, 415-255-8680 (SAN FRANCISCO, June 11, 1997) - In a historic meeting in San Francisco on June 11, His Holiness the Dalai Lama, for the first time ever, discussed issues of homosexuality, human rights and Buddhism with a small group of gay and lesbians leaders. His Holiness expressed his strong opposition to discrimination and violence against gay and lesbian people. He voiced his support for full human rights for all, regardless of sexual orientation. The Dalai Lama was moved by personal stories of loss and discrimination related by the participants, and urged respect, tolerance, and compassion for all. He made it clear that gay and lesbian activists could rely on general Buddhist principles as a foundation for their struggle for full equality.

"His Holiness the Dalai Lama's support for our rights is very significant,"
said Tinku Ali Ishtiaq, co-chair of the International Gay and Lesbian Human Rights Commission. "The Nobel Laureate commands tremendous respect among people of the world and is highly respected for his words of wisdom. I hope that his message of non-discrimination and respect for our rights will have considerable impact on non-Buddhist religious traditions as well."

In a warm, relaxed meeting, the Dalai Lama sought to clarify his understanding of traditional Buddhist texts concerning sexuality and empathized with participants' concerns and frustrations about the unfairness of the prohibitions for gays and lesbians. Traditional Buddhist teaching prohibits certain sexual activities for practicing Buddhists, including homosexual acts for men (and by implication, he said, for women). He expressed his willingness to consider the possibility that some of these teachings may be specific to a particular cultural and historical context. He stressed that he does not have the authority to unilaterally reinterpret Buddhist scriptures, but urged those present to build a consensus among other Buddhist traditions and communities to collectively change the understanding of the text for contemporary society. His Holiness expressed interest in the insights of modern scientific research and its value in developing new understandings of these texts.

"His Holiness the Dalai Lama was characteristically open and non-judgmental.
As Head of State of an occupied country and as a celibate religious leader, I think he has not spent much time considering issues of sexuality, gay rights, and homophobia.
Yet he welcomed our suggestion that these issues be explored in conjunction with upcoming conferences," said Eva Herzer, President of the International Committee of Lawyers for Tibet.

Jos Ignacio Cabez,, a former Buddhist monk and Professor of Philosophy at the Iliff School of Theology in Denver, said, "I feel heartened and encouraged by this dialogue. It is wonderful to see a religious thinker of the caliber of His Holiness the Dalai Lama grappling with issues of sexual ethics and especially the rights and responsibilities of gay and lesbian people in such an open, empathetic, and rigorous fashion. As a gay Buddhist, I am grateful for this opportunity."

Lourdes Arguello, a professor of education at the Claremont Graduate School and a board member of the Buddhist Peace Fellowship summed up her observations as follows: "It is always amazing to see how His Holiness rises beyond the culture-bound context of his own tradition and grapples with seemingly absurd proscriptions to focus on the complex needs and desires of human beings in the here and now. I left the meeting with both the understanding and the feeling that this is a first stage in an exciting and provocative dialogue between His Holiness and other Buddhist teachers on the one hand and gay and lesbian Buddhists and human rights activists on the other."

"This open, honest discussion of Buddhist traditional doctrine, with the participation of one of its most outstanding teachers, is 20th century Buddhism at its best," said Steve Peskind of the Buddhist AIDS Project.

Ven. K.T. Shedrup Gyatso, Spiritual Director of the San Jose Tibetan Temple, said regarding today's meeting, "As an openly gay, celibate, fully-ordained Buddhist monk, I am very pleased with what His Holiness had to say. I can now go back to my temple and tell our gay, lesbian and bisexual members that they are still Buddhists, that they are still welcome, and that they are as well-equipped for the Buddhist path as anyone else."

original report can be found on

http://www.iglhrc.org/news/press/pr_970611.html